Philippine social researchers see the need for countries to have a well-supported international framework that protects territorial and fundamental rights in the age of globalization.
During the 5th Annual Public Policy Conference (or APPC) held in Pasay City, former senior research fellow at Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) Erlinda Medalla said “Globalization merely calls for better enforcement of our rights, wherein we need to have a global framework and global institutions to manage them.”
This framework could be written in the form of policies called global public goods (GPGs) —usually international agreements of laws —-like the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
GPGs, such as the UNCLOS, are potent tool to counter the negative consequences of globalization, such as global pollution and propagation of fake news and false information.
GPGs also empower smaller states against the possible economic and physical intimidation of larger states.
These GPGs are usually protected through international bodies, such as the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), or through incorporation in the municipal law of a nation.
But the problem with some GPGs are severely underfunded, according to researchers Roehlano Briones, Connie Dacuycuy, Francis Quimba, and Michael Abrigo, authors of the PIDS study, “Understanding the New Globalization: Implications for the Philippines”.
”Despite the increasing need for GPGs, total spending on them has remained relatively unchanged —even declining in some categories over the years,” they said.
For instance, the revenues of the United Nation System, including both mandatory and voluntary contributions from state and non-state actors, summed up to just less than 0.1 percent of the world gross domestic product in the past few years.
Since underfunded, there may be either poor implementation or non-compliance to some GPGs such as UNCLOS.
The PCA upheld the Philippines’ exclusive sovereign rights over the West Philippine Sea and declared China’s “nine-dash line” as invalid following the principles of UNCLOS in 2016.
China rejected the arbitral ruling and has intensified its physical activities in the West Philippine Sea. (Lyndon Plantilla/PIA-MIMAROPA)